Архивы Рубрики: Encyclopedia of Jazz

Arrangement of music

Arrangement — arrangement of music

for another, compared with the original, group of performers. As the main thematic material borrowed from jazz, folk, musical, revues and reviews, jazz, Arrangement, in contrast of academicals music, allowed various changes of melody, harmony, rhythm, invoices, etc. It must take into account the specific features and styles of a particular group. Often these changes occur directly in the execution process. In a jazz piece, which consists of several consecutive iterations topic, ie, Korus, ArrangementВ often expressed in the form of different melodic variations.arrangement of music

One of the earliest types of Arrangement is spoken (head A) spread mostly in the archaic and New Orleans jazz. Because of the vast majority of early jazz, musicians were not familiar with music literacy, the practice of executions without recording. At the same time implementing previously agreed among themselves on the introduction, the order of Corus, code, etc.

Such Arrangement uses bands of Louis Armstrong, Jelly Roll Morton, Joe King Oliver and many others.Arrangement Oral still prevalent in traditional jazz, as well as in small ensembles of modern improvisational jazz.

In 20-ies stock Arrangement was widely distributed which produced music publishers and intended for the execution of dance orchestras. These are universal, and could perform any composition. They are produced in our time.

There are also special Arrangement of music written per specific ensemble or orchestra, taking into account individual characteristics and capabilities of the performers. The first appeared in the musical in 20-ies. That was due to the expansion of the jazz band and advanced training of musicians.

Among the arrangers of the time — Elmer Shabelle which created ensembles for Arrangement Louis Armstrong, Jelly Roll Morton, Joe King Oliver, and Don Redman. Great influence on the further development of the art AV had the composer and pianist Fletcher Henderson.

A further development was in the 30s during the swing, due to the huge popularity of large orchestras, there are many talented arrangers, including Milt Buckner, Eddie Durham, Benny Carter, Jimmy Lunsford, Jimmy Mundy, Glen Miller, Sy Oliver, Eddie Sauter, Claude Thornhill, Edwin Wilcox, Gerald Wilson, Mary Lou Williams. All of them, by developing the principle F. Henderson, brought in their modulation of AA, riffs and sound effects. A. The original created Count Basie and Chick Webb, constantly referring to the riffs and unison, which have become essential elements of A. for big band.

Among the arrangers of the period highlights the Duke Ellington. He created the original principle of Arrangement of music  was further characterized for the whole of his work. In the mid-40s Woody Herman, Stan Kenton, Boyd Reyborn, Pete Rugolo began to gradually introduce a new orchestral techniques Arrangement, Latin rhythms, elements of European compositional technique, which later formed the basis of progression.

With the advent of modern jazz, ArrangementВ is also used in the ensembles, where the fixed party interwoven with improvisation. This period was marked by the search for new means of expressing-sequence, the original fresh sound that is reflected both in the Arrangement of music  for the ensembles, and for big bands.

This was manifested on the one hand, the active use of techniques characteristic of European compositional technique (complication melodic, harmonic language, rhythm, widespread use of polyphony), the other in the introduction to the orchestra instruments, previously rarely used in jazz (flute, oboe, bass clarinet, horn, bass trombone, cello).

Among the most famous modern jazz arrangers — Francy Boland (Belgium), George Garanyan, Givi Gachechiladze, Vitaly Dolgov, Alexey Kozlov, Anatoly Kroll, Raymond Pauls, Boris Rychkov, Yuri Saulsky, Vladimir Terletsky (USSR), Ralph Barnes, Bob Brookmeyer, Quincy Jones Ted Jones, John Lewis, Jerry Malligan, OliverNelson, George Russell, Bill Russo, Evans, Duke Ellington (USA), Michel Legrand (France).

Archaic jazz

Archaic jazz is infancy Negro instrumental music performed byNew Orleans brass bands. AJ was preceded by aNew Orleans style, and covers the period of approximately the mid 60s to late 90s XIX century. Archaic jazz

Traditional african music

Traditional african music

African music — a term used in reference to the musical culture of the Negro peoples who inhabit the western, central and southern Africa, which have a common musical language, musical instruments, regularities of modal systems, rhythm, etc.

Folk music of Central, South and, in particular West Africa recorded the highest identity and is markedly different from the music of North and East Africa, subjected to the influence of the Arab-Muslim culture. African Negro music is diverse in genre and is closely connected with the labor process and cult rituals. She accompanies the official and ceremonial events and widespread in everyday life.Traditional african music

Among the most common genres — labor, heroic, lullabies and lyrical songs.

Typical for traditional african music is pentatonic scale. The rhythm is complex and rich, the use of highly developed forms of poly metrical and poly rhythms, which is especially evident in the ensemble performance. Each band has a few African drums sounding together which creates a so-called cross-rhythm, i.e., the simultaneous combination of different rhythms.

In the performance of vocal and instrumental music, there are several individual rhythmic patterns of lines (vocal, clapping his hands, hitting the drums). Due to their mismatch creates the effect of syncopation. Despite the leading role of rhythm in traditional african musicВ pronounced melodic beginning. Since the harmonic structure is not inherent in african music, it uses heterophony, as well as elements with a parallel voice-polyphony in a quart or a fifth.

Many of the rhythmic, melodic and timbre features traditional african music due to the nature of conversational speech, which clearly distinguished onomatopoeic elements. Because African languages tonally very flexible and have a 3, 5, and some even 7 tones, which could not but affect the vocal music, replete with half-tone, and sometimes quarter tones relations.

For the manner of singing is characterized by the intensity of African sounding hoarse, guttural peculiar timbre, vibration, guttural and nasal sounds, high falsetto screams, and a tendency to use contrasting extreme registers of the range, most noticeably in mixed choral singing, where thick powerful bass contrasted with shrill ringing of a high register.

When one is playing the wind instrument, as well as in vocal music, intonation and timbre of the human voice are imitated. For african music is typical — question-and-response structure of the roll between the soloist and the choir, two choirs, as well as between the vocalists and instrument ¬ sheets. Unusually rich is African instruments, which are based on a group of percussion instruments. Among them are the drums, numbering a few dozen major types and hundreds of varieties.

Ensembles of drums reach a high level of performance virtuosity. Widespread are xylophone, marimba, tam-tam, gong, and creating a rhythmic background bands used bells, rattles, clappers.

Jazz music, both in early and in later styles and trends, widely use elements inherent in traditional african music, including methods of sound and intonation, tonal coloration, the question-answer structure, especially rhythm, improvisation and much more.

Afro-American music

Afro-American music

folk music of American blacks emerged because of mixing elements of African and European musical culture. Afro-American music formed during the XVI-XIX centuries, it is dominated by typical African features.Afro-American music

In Afro-American music there are the following genre divisions: vocal music (work songs, ballads, spirituals, and blues), instrumental music and jazz. Term was coined in 1914 by music critic G. Krebil, and now it applies to the Negro Folklore United States.

Afro-Cuban jazz

Afro-Cuban jazz

— direction of modern jazz which developed in the heyday of bebop in the second half of the 40s. Afro-Cuban jazz characterized by the use of elements of African and Cuban music, particularly Latin American dance rhythms — rumba, mambo and that contributed to the expansion of the rhythmic group by introducing into it the Cuban people. Percussion instruments (bongos, claves, congas, maracas, team-bales). Afro-Cuban jazz

This trend is typical of some of the bands playing in the bebop style. Trends of  Afro-Cuban jazz most clearly manifested in the compositions «Cubana bop», «Manteca» and other written records on the Big Band Dizzy Gillespie in 1947, greatly influenced the development of  Afro-Cuban jazz Artists have a percussion invited from Cuba and Puerto Rico, including Candido, Machito, Chano Pozo.

Inherent for Latin music polyrhythm considerably enriched the jazz influenced phrasing, as well as the technique of playing the drums with some artists (Art Black, Max Roach). In the 50’s Afro-Cuban rhythms used in big band, in particular in the band Wall of Kenton. Afro-Cuban jazzВhas also influenced the work of arrangers such as George Russell, Gil and Chico O’Farril Fuller.

Ballads songs

Ballad

— epic song with a dramatic storyline, common in many people’s cultures.

Initially in the Latins (in the Middle Ages) — monophonic dance song. In the Renaissance, Ballads songs acquired a lyrical character. Parallel evolution took place primarily Ballad inEngland, where she is gradually losing the connection with the dance turned into an epic song, sung alternately solo and chorus.Ballads songs

In theU.S., British, in particular Scotland, Ballad undergone a slight influence Negro folklore, are widespread among the Negroes in the form of solo song. Ballads songs often performed in theaters stray minstrel submissions. They played a significantly role in the origin and formation of jazz.

Ballad, in the form of sentimental songs clock 32-couplet form, is performing at a moderate or slow tempo, common in popular music, where they often borrowed jazz musicians as a topic for improvisation.

Among the most prominent interpreters — pianist Bill Evans, trumpeter Miles Davis, saxophonist Coleman Hawkins and John Coltrane (USA).

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